Scholarly

Paperback Publication

Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships: Principles, Outcomes, Practical Tools, and Future Directions

The Alliance for Clinical Education (ACE) is proud to announce its newest text. Dr. Poncelet and Dr. Hirsh eagerly developed an encyclopedic chapter for the 4th edition of the ACE Guidebook for Clerkship Directors, and it seemed logical and proper to grow that chapter, which had been truncated for the Guidebook, into this book. They have assembled the leading international experts in the field of the medical school longitudinal integrated curriculum, who in turn have generated what we are sure will be considered the ultimate resource for these experiences. This book fills a significant void in the medical education literature.

Click on any section below to open and expand it.

Underlying principles

Worley P. Relationships: a new way to analyse community-based medical education? (Part one). Educ Health (Abingdon). 2002;15(2):117-28. PubMed PMID: 14741960.

Worley P. Integrity: the key to quality in community-based medical education? (Part two).Educ Health (Abingdon). 2002;15(2):129-38. PubMed PMID: 14741961.

Irby DM. Educational continuity in clinical clerkships. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22;356(8):856-7. PubMed PMID: 17314347.

Hirsh DA, Ogur B, Thibault GE, Cox M. “Continuity” as an organizing principle for clinical education reform. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22;356(8):858-66. PubMed PMID: 17314348.

Hirsh D, Worley P. Better learning, better doctors, better community: how transforming clinical education can help repair society. Med Educ. 2013 Sep;47(9):942-9. doi: 10.1111/medu.12278. PubMed PMID: 23931543.

Walters L, Brooks K. Integration, continuity and longitudinality: the ‘what’ that makes patient-centred learning in clinical clerkships. Med Educ. 2016 Sep;50(9):889-91. doi: 10.1111/medu.13118. PubMed PMID: 27562886.

LIC models’ world growth and international typology

Norris TE, Schaad DC, DeWitt D, Ogur B, Hunt DD; Consortium of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships.. Longitudinal integrated clerkships for medical students: an innovation adopted by medical schools in Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Acad Med. 2009 Jul;84(7):902-7. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181a85776. PubMed PMID: 19550184.

Strasser R, Hirsh D. Longitudinal integrated clerkships: transforming medical education worldwide? Med Educ. 2011 May;45(5):436-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.03939.x. PubMed PMID: 21486319.

Poncelet A, Hirsh D, chapter editors. Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. In: Morgenstern BZ, editor. Guidebook for Clerkship Directors 4th ed. Alliance for Clinical Education. North Syracuse: Gegensatz; 2012. p. 173-224.

Poncelet A, Hirsh D, eds. Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships: Principles, outcomes, practical tools and future directions. Syracuse, NY: Gegensatz Press; 2016.

Worley P, Couper I, Strasser R, Graves L, Cummings BA, Woodman R, Stagg P, Hirsh D; Consortium of Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships (CLIC) Research Collaborative.. A typology of longitudinal integrated clerkships. Med Educ. 2016 Sep;50(9):922-32. doi: 10.1111/medu.13084. PubMed PMID: 27562892.

Ellaway RH, Graves L, Cummings BA. Dimensions of integration, continuity and longitudinality in clinical clerkships. Med Educ. 2016 Sep;50(9):912-21. doi: 10.1111/medu.13038. PubMed PMID: 27562891.

Hirsh DA, Walters L. Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. In Dent JA, Harden RM, Hunt D, eds. A Practical Guide for Medical Teachers. 5th edition. Elsevier; 2017.

LIC model descriptions

Verby JE. The Minnesota Rural Physician Associate Program for medical students. J Med Educ. 1988 Jun;63(6):427-37. PubMed PMID: 3373497.

Brazeau NK, Potts MJ, Hickner JM. The Upper Peninsula Program: a successful model for increasing primary care physicians in rural areas. Fam Med. 1990 Sep-Oct;22(5):350-5. PubMed PMID: 2227169.

Hansen LA, Talley RC. South Dakota’s third-year program of integrated clerkships in ambulatory-care settings. Acad Med. 1992 Dec;67(12):817-9. PubMed PMID: 1457013.

Anderson AS, Martell JV. Comparing sequential clerkships and a longitudinal clerkship for third-year medical students. Acad Med. 1994 May;69(5):418-9. PubMed PMID: 8086063.

Worley P, Silagy C, Prideaux D, Newble D, Jones A. The parallel rural community curriculum: an integrated clinical curriculum based in rural general practice. Med Educ. 2000 Jul;34(7):558-65. PubMed PMID: 10886639.

Oswald N, Alderson T, Jones S. Evaluating primary care as a base for medical education: the report of the Cambridge Community-based Clinical Course. Med Educ. 2001 Aug;35(8):782-8. PubMed PMID: 11489107.

Ogur B, Hirsh D, Krupat E, Bor D. The Harvard Medical School-Cambridge integrated clerkship: an innovative model of clinical education. Acad Med. 2007 Apr;82(4):397-404. Review. PubMed PMID: 17414198.

Tesson G, Hudson G, Strasser R, Hunt D, eds. The Making of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine: A Case Study in the History of Medical Education. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: McGill-Queens University Press; 2009.

Poncelet A, Bokser S, Calton B, Hauer KE, Kirsch H, Jones T, Lai CJ, Mazotti L, Shore W, Teherani A, Tong L, Wamsley M, Robertson P. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship at an academic medical center. Med Educ Online. 2011 Apr 4;16. doi: 10.3402/meo.v16i0.5939. PubMed PMID: 21475642; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3071870.

Chen P. Reinventing the Third-Year Medical Student. New York Times 2012  http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/19/reinventing-the-third-year-medical-student/?_r=0

Arabella L. Simpkin, Andrew M. McKeown, Ravi Parekh, Sonia Kumar & Gareth Tudor-Williams (2017) A novel Integrated Clinical Apprenticeship: transforming medical students into student doctors, Education for Primary Care, 28:5, 288-290, DOI: 10.1080/14739879.2017.1319745

Pedagogy research with LIC model

Underlying principles

 LIC models’ world growth and international typology

LC model descriptions

Pedagogy research with LIC model

 

LIC Academic Outcomes

 

Worley P, Esterman A, Prideaux D. Cohort study of examination performance of undergraduate medical students learning in community settings. BMJ. 2004 Jan 24;328(7433):207-9. PubMed PMID: 14739189; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC318489.

Worley P, Strasser R, Prideaux D. Can medical students learn specialist disciplines based in rural practice: lessons from students’ self reported experience and competence.Rural Remote Health. 2004 Oct-Dec;4(4):338. Epub 2004 Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 15887993.

Schauer RW, Schieve D. Performance of medical students in a nontraditional rural clinical program, 1998-99 through 2003-04. Acad Med. 2006 Jul;81(7):603-7. PubMed PMID: 16799280.

Worley P, Prideaux D, Strasser R, Magarey A, March R. Empirical evidence for symbiotic medical education: a comparative analysis of community and tertiary-based programmes. Med Educ. 2006 Feb;40(2):109-16. PubMed PMID: 16451237.

Zink T, Power DV, Finstad D, Brooks KD. Is there equivalency between students in a longitudinal, rural clerkship and a traditional urban-based program? Fam Med. 2010 Nov-Dec;42(10):702-6. PubMed PMID: 21061201.

Zink T, Power DV, Olson K, Harris IB, Brooks KD. Qualitative differences between traditional and rural-longitudinal medical student OSCE performance. Fam Med. 2010 Nov-Dec;42(10):707-11. PubMed PMID: 21061202.

Brooks KD, Acton RD, Hemesath K, Schmitz CC. Surgical skills acquisition: performance of students trained in a rural longitudinal integrated clerkship and those from a traditional block clerkship on a standardized examination using simulated patients. J Surg Educ. 2014 Mar-Apr;71(2):246-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 24602717.

Myhre DL, Bajaj S, Woloschuk W. Practice locations of longitudinal integrated clerkship graduates: a matched-cohort study. Can J Rural Med. 2016 Winter;21(1):13-6. PubMed PMID: 26824805.

Mahoney S, Worley P, Parry H, Clarke S. Urban general practice and medical education: Academic outcomes from a unique urban, longitudinal integrated community-based program. Aust Fam Physician. 2016 Oct;45(10):754-757. PubMed PMID: 27695727.

Myhre DL, Woloschuk W, Jackson W, McLaughlin K. Academic performance of longitudinal integrated clerkship versus rotation-based clerkship students: a matched-cohort study. Acad Med. 2014 Feb;89(2):292-5. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000110. PubMed PMID: 24362389.

 

LIC Workforce Outcomes

 

Brazeau NK, Potts MJ, Hickner JM. The Upper Peninsula Program: a successful model for increasing primary care physicians in rural areas. Fam Med. 1990 Sep-Oct;22(5):350-5. PubMed PMID: 2227169.

Verby JE, Newell JP, Andresen SA, Swentko WM. Changing the medical school curriculum to improve patient access to primary care. JAMA. 1991 Jul 3;266(1):110-3. PubMed PMID: 1904505.

Verby JE. The Minnesota Rural Physician Associate Program for medical students. J Med Educ. 1988 Jun;63(6):427-37. PubMed PMID: 3373497.

Verby JE, Schaefer MT, Voeks RS. Learning forestry out of the lumberyard. A training alternative for primary care. JAMA. 1981 Aug 7;246(6):645-7. PubMed PMID: 7253116.

Verby JE. The Minnesota Rural Physician Redistribution Plan, 1971 to 1976. JAMA. 1977 Aug 29;238(9):960-4. PubMed PMID: 577990.

Verby JE, Connolly JP. Rural physician’s associate program. J Med Educ. 1972 Nov;47(11):907-8. PubMed PMID: 5087148.

Garrard J, Verby JE. Comparisons of medical student experiences in rural and university settings. J Med Educ. 1977 Oct;52(10):802-10. PubMed PMID: 903945.

Eley DS, Brooks KD, Zink T, Cloninger CR. Toward a global understanding of students who participate in rural primary care longitudinal integrated clerkships: considering personality across 2 continents. J Rural Health. 2014 Spring;30(2):164-74. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12039. Epub 2013 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 24689541.

Zink T, Halaas GW, Brooks KD. Learning professionalism during the third year of medical school in a 9-month-clinical rotation in rural Minnesota. Med Teach. 2009 Nov;31(11):1001-6. doi: 10.3109/01421590802572759. PubMed PMID: 19909040.

Zink T, Halaas GW, Finstad D, Brooks KD. The rural physician associate program: the value of immersion learning for third-year medical students. J Rural Health. 2008 Fall;24(4):353-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2008.00181.x. PubMed PMID: 19007389.

Halaas GW, Zink T, Brooks KD, Miller J. Clinical skills day: preparing third year medical students for their rural rotation. Rural Remote Health. 2007 Oct-Dec;7(4):788. Epub 2007 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 17922608.

Heddle W, Roberton G, Mahoney S, Walters L, Strasser S, Worley P. Challenges in transformation of the “traditional block rotation” medical student clinical education into a longitudinal integrated clerkship model. Educ Health (Abingdon). 2014 May-Aug;27(2):138-42. doi: 10.4103/1357-6283.143744. PubMed PMID: 25420974.

Van Schalkwyk SC, Bezuidenhout J, Conradie HH, Fish T, Kok NJ, Van Heerden BH, de Villiers MR. ‘Going rural’: driving change through a rural medical education innovation.Rural Remote Health. 2014;14:2493. Epub 2014 May 6. PubMed PMID: 24803108.

Mihalynuk T, Bates J, Page G, Fraser J. Student learning experiences in a longitudinal clerkship programme. Med Educ. 2008 Jul;42(7):729-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03040.x. PubMed PMID: 18588652.

Farry P, Adams J, Walters L, Worley P, Dovey S. Development of the Rural Immersion Programme for 5th-year medical students at the University Of Otago. N Z Med J. 2010 Sep 24;123(1323):16-23. PubMed PMID: 20930906.

Worley P, Martin A, Prideaux D, Woodman R, Worley E, Lowe M. Vocational career paths of graduate entry medical students at Flinders University: a comparison of rural, remote and tertiary tracks. Med J Aust. 2008 Feb 4;188(3):177-8. PubMed PMID: 18241180.

Stagg P, Greenhill J, Worley PS. A new model to understand the career choice and practice location decisions of medical graduates. Rural Remote Health. 2009 Oct-Dec;9(4):1245. Epub 2009 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 19943714.

Playford DE, Evans SF, Atkinson DN, Auret KA, Riley GJ. Impact of the Rural Clinical School of Western Australia on work location of medical graduates. Med J Aust. 2014 Feb 3;200(2):104-7. PubMed PMID: 24484114.

Worley P. Flinders University School of Medicine, Northern Territory, Australia: Achieving Educational Excellence along with a Sustainable Rural Medical Workforce. MEDICC Rev. 2008 Oct;10(4):30-4. PubMed PMID: 21483334.

Hudson JN, Thomson B, Weston KM, Knight-Billington PJ. When a LIC came to town: the impact of longitudinal integrated clerkships on a rural community of healthcare practice. Rural Remote Health. 2015 Jul-Sep;15(3):3333. Epub 2015 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 26387868.

Hudson JN, Weston KM, Farmer EA. Medical students on long-term regional and rural placements: what is the financial cost to supervisors? Rural Remote Health. 2012;12(2):1951. Epub 2012 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 22519409.

Lee YH, Barnard A, Owen C. Initial evaluation of rural programs at the Australian National University: understanding the effects of rural programs on intentions for rural and remote medical practice. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(2):1602. Epub 2011 May 13. PubMed PMID: 21568620.

Hogenbirk JC, Robinson DR, Hill ME, Pong RW, Minore B, Adams K, Strasser RP, Lipinski J. The economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine to communities participating in distributed medical education. Can J Rural Med. 2015 Winter;20(1):25-32. PubMed PMID: 25611911.

Sheline B, Tran AN, Jackson J, Peyser B, Rogers S, Engle D. The Primary Care Leadership Track at the Duke University School of Medicine: creating change agents to improve population health. Acad Med. 2014 Oct;89(10):1370-4. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000305. PubMed PMID: 24826848.

Myhre DL, Adamiak P, Woloschuk W, Donnon T. Rural longitudinal integrated clerkships: changing interests and demographics of medical students. Can J Rural Med. 2015 Summer;20(3):83-91. PubMed PMID: 26160513.

Osman N, Atalay A, Saravanan Y, Shagrin B, Singh T, et al. Designing medical education structure for workforce transformation: Continuity, Symbiosis, and Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. Educ Sci. 2017; 7(2):58.

Zink T, Center B, Finstad D, Boulger JG, Repesh LA, Westra R, Christensen R, Brooks KD. Efforts to graduate more primary care physicians and physicians who will practice in rural areas: examining outcomes from the university of Minnesota-duluth and the rural physician associate program. Acad Med. 2010 Apr;85(4):599-604. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181d2b537. PubMed PMID: 20354374.

Halaas GW, Zink T, Finstad D, Bolin K, Center B. Recruitment and retention of rural physicians: outcomes from the rural physician associate program of Minnesota. J Rural Health. 2008 Fall;24(4):345-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2008.00180.x. PubMed PMID: 19007388.

Denz-Penhey H, Shannon S, Murdoch CJ, Newbury JW. Do benefits accrue from longer rotations for students in Rural Clinical Schools? Rural Remote Health. 2005 Apr-Jun;5(2):414. Epub 2005 Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 15946108.

Walters L, Stagg P, Halsey J, Campbell D, D’Amore A, et al. Community engagement by two Australian rural clinical schools. Australas J Univ Community Engage . 2011; 6:37-56.

Worley PS, Prideaux DJ, Strasser RP, Silagy CA, Magarey JA. Why we should teach undergraduate medical students in rural communities. Med J Aust. 2000 Jun 19;172(12):615-7. PubMed PMID: 10914111.

 

LICs and Graduate Medical Education (LIRs)

 

Bowen JL, Hirsh D, Aagaard E, Kaminetzky CP, Smith M, Hardman J, Chheda SG. Advancing educational continuity in primary care residencies: an opportunity for patient-centered medical homes. Acad Med. 2015 May;90(5):587-93. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000589. Review. PubMed PMID: 25470307.

Warm EJ, Schauer DP, Diers T, Mathis BR, Neirouz Y, Boex JR, Rouan GW. The ambulatory long-block: an accreditation council for graduate medical education (ACGME) educational innovations project (EIP). J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Jul;23(7):921-6. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y. PubMed PMID: 18612718; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2517908.

Warm EJ. The ambulatory long block: a systems-based practice innovation. Virtual Mentor. 2008 May 1;10(5):295-9. doi: 10.1001/virtualmentor.2008.10.5.medu1-0805. PubMed PMID: 23211981.

Warm EJ. Interval examination: the ambulatory long block. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 Jul;25(7):750-2. doi: 10.1007/s11606-010-1362-5. Epub 2010 Apr 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 20422301; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2881975.

LIC Academic Outcomes

Worley P, Esterman A, Prideaux D. Cohort study of examination performance of undergraduate medical students learning in community settings. BMJ. 2004 Jan 24;328(7433):207-9. PubMed PMID: 14739189; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC318489.

Worley P, Strasser R, Prideaux D. Can medical students learn specialist disciplines based in rural practice: lessons from students’ self reported experience and competence.Rural Remote Health. 2004 Oct-Dec;4(4):338. Epub 2004 Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 15887993.

Schauer RW, Schieve D. Performance of medical students in a nontraditional rural clinical program, 1998-99 through 2003-04. Acad Med. 2006 Jul;81(7):603-7. PubMed PMID: 16799280.

Worley P, Prideaux D, Strasser R, Magarey A, March R. Empirical evidence for symbiotic medical education: a comparative analysis of community and tertiary-based programmes. Med Educ. 2006 Feb;40(2):109-16. PubMed PMID: 16451237.

Zink T, Power DV, Finstad D, Brooks KD. Is there equivalency between students in a longitudinal, rural clerkship and a traditional urban-based program? Fam Med. 2010 Nov-Dec;42(10):702-6. PubMed PMID: 21061201.

Zink T, Power DV, Olson K, Harris IB, Brooks KD. Qualitative differences between traditional and rural-longitudinal medical student OSCE performance. Fam Med. 2010 Nov-Dec;42(10):707-11. PubMed PMID: 21061202.

Brooks KD, Acton RD, Hemesath K, Schmitz CC. Surgical skills acquisition: performance of students trained in a rural longitudinal integrated clerkship and those from a traditional block clerkship on a standardized examination using simulated patients. J Surg Educ. 2014 Mar-Apr;71(2):246-53. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2013.08.008. Epub 2013 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 24602717.

Myhre DL, Bajaj S, Woloschuk W. Practice locations of longitudinal integrated clerkship graduates: a matched-cohort study. Can J Rural Med. 2016 Winter;21(1):13-6. PubMed PMID: 26824805.

Mahoney S, Worley P, Parry H, Clarke S. Urban general practice and medical education: Academic outcomes from a unique urban, longitudinal integrated community-based program. Aust Fam Physician. 2016 Oct;45(10):754-757. PubMed PMID: 27695727.

Myhre DL, Woloschuk W, Jackson W, McLaughlin K. Academic performance of longitudinal integrated clerkship versus rotation-based clerkship students: a matched-cohort study. Acad Med. 2014 Feb;89(2):292-5. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000110. PubMed PMID: 24362389.

Andy McKeown & Ravi Parekh (2017) Longitudinal integrated clerkships in the community, Education for Primary Care, 28:3, 185-187, DOI: 10.1080/14739879.2017.1298976

LIC Workforce Outcomes

Brazeau NK, Potts MJ, Hickner JM. The Upper Peninsula Program: a successful model for increasing primary care physicians in rural areas. Fam Med. 1990 Sep-Oct;22(5):350-5. PubMed PMID: 2227169.

Verby JE, Newell JP, Andresen SA, Swentko WM. Changing the medical school curriculum to improve patient access to primary care. JAMA. 1991 Jul 3;266(1):110-3. PubMed PMID: 1904505.

Verby JE. The Minnesota Rural Physician Associate Program for medical students. J Med Educ. 1988 Jun;63(6):427-37. PubMed PMID: 3373497.

Verby JE, Schaefer MT, Voeks RS. Learning forestry out of the lumberyard. A training alternative for primary care. JAMA. 1981 Aug 7;246(6):645-7. PubMed PMID: 7253116.

Verby JE. The Minnesota Rural Physician Redistribution Plan, 1971 to 1976. JAMA. 1977 Aug 29;238(9):960-4. PubMed PMID: 577990.

Verby JE, Connolly JP. Rural physician’s associate program. J Med Educ. 1972 Nov;47(11):907-8. PubMed PMID: 5087148.

Garrard J, Verby JE. Comparisons of medical student experiences in rural and university settings. J Med Educ. 1977 Oct;52(10):802-10. PubMed PMID: 903945.

Eley DS, Brooks KD, Zink T, Cloninger CR. Toward a global understanding of students who participate in rural primary care longitudinal integrated clerkships: considering personality across 2 continents. J Rural Health. 2014 Spring;30(2):164-74. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12039. Epub 2013 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 24689541.

Zink T, Halaas GW, Brooks KD. Learning professionalism during the third year of medical school in a 9-month-clinical rotation in rural Minnesota. Med Teach. 2009 Nov;31(11):1001-6. doi: 10.3109/01421590802572759. PubMed PMID: 19909040.

Zink T, Halaas GW, Finstad D, Brooks KD. The rural physician associate program: the value of immersion learning for third-year medical students. J Rural Health. 2008 Fall;24(4):353-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2008.00181.x. PubMed PMID: 19007389.

Halaas GW, Zink T, Brooks KD, Miller J. Clinical skills day: preparing third year medical students for their rural rotation. Rural Remote Health. 2007 Oct-Dec;7(4):788. Epub 2007 Oct 3. PubMed PMID: 17922608.

Heddle W, Roberton G, Mahoney S, Walters L, Strasser S, Worley P. Challenges in transformation of the “traditional block rotation” medical student clinical education into a longitudinal integrated clerkship model. Educ Health (Abingdon). 2014 May-Aug;27(2):138-42. doi: 10.4103/1357-6283.143744. PubMed PMID: 25420974.

Van Schalkwyk SC, Bezuidenhout J, Conradie HH, Fish T, Kok NJ, Van Heerden BH, de Villiers MR. ‘Going rural’: driving change through a rural medical education innovation.Rural Remote Health. 2014;14:2493. Epub 2014 May 6. PubMed PMID: 24803108.

Mihalynuk T, Bates J, Page G, Fraser J. Student learning experiences in a longitudinal clerkship programme. Med Educ. 2008 Jul;42(7):729-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03040.x. PubMed PMID: 18588652.

Farry P, Adams J, Walters L, Worley P, Dovey S. Development of the Rural Immersion Programme for 5th-year medical students at the University Of Otago. N Z Med J. 2010 Sep 24;123(1323):16-23. PubMed PMID: 20930906.

Worley P, Martin A, Prideaux D, Woodman R, Worley E, Lowe M. Vocational career paths of graduate entry medical students at Flinders University: a comparison of rural, remote and tertiary tracks. Med J Aust. 2008 Feb 4;188(3):177-8. PubMed PMID: 18241180.

Stagg P, Greenhill J, Worley PS. A new model to understand the career choice and practice location decisions of medical graduates. Rural Remote Health. 2009 Oct-Dec;9(4):1245. Epub 2009 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 19943714.

Playford DE, Evans SF, Atkinson DN, Auret KA, Riley GJ. Impact of the Rural Clinical School of Western Australia on work location of medical graduates. Med J Aust. 2014 Feb 3;200(2):104-7. PubMed PMID: 24484114.

Worley P. Flinders University School of Medicine, Northern Territory, Australia: Achieving Educational Excellence along with a Sustainable Rural Medical Workforce. MEDICC Rev. 2008 Oct;10(4):30-4. PubMed PMID: 21483334.

Hudson JN, Thomson B, Weston KM, Knight-Billington PJ. When a LIC came to town: the impact of longitudinal integrated clerkships on a rural community of healthcare practice. Rural Remote Health. 2015 Jul-Sep;15(3):3333. Epub 2015 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 26387868.

Hudson JN, Weston KM, Farmer EA. Medical students on long-term regional and rural placements: what is the financial cost to supervisors? Rural Remote Health. 2012;12(2):1951. Epub 2012 Apr 17. PubMed PMID: 22519409.

Lee YH, Barnard A, Owen C. Initial evaluation of rural programs at the Australian National University: understanding the effects of rural programs on intentions for rural and remote medical practice. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(2):1602. Epub 2011 May 13. PubMed PMID: 21568620.

Hogenbirk JC, Robinson DR, Hill ME, Pong RW, Minore B, Adams K, Strasser RP, Lipinski J. The economic contribution of the Northern Ontario School of Medicine to communities participating in distributed medical education. Can J Rural Med. 2015 Winter;20(1):25-32. PubMed PMID: 25611911.

Sheline B, Tran AN, Jackson J, Peyser B, Rogers S, Engle D. The Primary Care Leadership Track at the Duke University School of Medicine: creating change agents to improve population health. Acad Med. 2014 Oct;89(10):1370-4. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000305. PubMed PMID: 24826848.

Myhre DL, Adamiak P, Woloschuk W, Donnon T. Rural longitudinal integrated clerkships: changing interests and demographics of medical students. Can J Rural Med. 2015 Summer;20(3):83-91. PubMed PMID: 26160513.

Osman N, Atalay A, Saravanan Y, Shagrin B, Singh T, et al. Designing medical education structure for workforce transformation: Continuity, Symbiosis, and Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. Educ Sci. 2017; 7(2):58.

Zink T, Center B, Finstad D, Boulger JG, Repesh LA, Westra R, Christensen R, Brooks KD. Efforts to graduate more primary care physicians and physicians who will practice in rural areas: examining outcomes from the university of Minnesota-duluth and the rural physician associate program. Acad Med. 2010 Apr;85(4):599-604. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181d2b537. PubMed PMID: 20354374.

Halaas GW, Zink T, Finstad D, Bolin K, Center B. Recruitment and retention of rural physicians: outcomes from the rural physician associate program of Minnesota. J Rural Health. 2008 Fall;24(4):345-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-0361.2008.00180.x. PubMed PMID: 19007388.

Denz-Penhey H, Shannon S, Murdoch CJ, Newbury JW. Do benefits accrue from longer rotations for students in Rural Clinical Schools? Rural Remote Health. 2005 Apr-Jun;5(2):414. Epub 2005 Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 15946108.

Walters L, Stagg P, Halsey J, Campbell D, D’Amore A, et al. Community engagement by two Australian rural clinical schools. Australas J Univ Community Engage . 2011; 6:37-56.

Worley PS, Prideaux DJ, Strasser RP, Silagy CA, Magarey JA. Why we should teach undergraduate medical students in rural communities. Med J Aust. 2000 Jun 19;172(12):615-7. PubMed PMID: 10914111.

LICs and Graduate Medical Education (LIRs)

Bowen JL, Hirsh D, Aagaard E, Kaminetzky CP, Smith M, Hardman J, Chheda SG. Advancing educational continuity in primary care residencies: an opportunity for patient-centered medical homes. Acad Med. 2015 May;90(5):587-93. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000589. Review. PubMed PMID: 25470307.

Warm EJ, Schauer DP, Diers T, Mathis BR, Neirouz Y, Boex JR, Rouan GW. The ambulatory long-block: an accreditation council for graduate medical education (ACGME) educational innovations project (EIP). J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Jul;23(7):921-6. doi: 10.1007/s11606-008-0588-y. PubMed PMID: 18612718; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2517908.

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